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Sushi

Sushi is a Japanese food consisting of cooked vinegared rice (shari) combined with other ingredients (neta). Neta and forms of sushi presentation vary / but the ingredient which all sushi have in common is shari. The most common neta is seafood. Raw meat sliced and served by itself is sashimi.

History

The original type of sushi / known today as nare-zushi / was first developed in Southeast Asia / and spread to south China before introduction to Japan.[citation needed] The term sushi comes from an archaic grammatical form no longer used in other contexts; literally / sushi means "sour-tasting" / a reflection of its historic fermented roots. The oldest form of sushi in Japan / narezushi / still very closely resembles this process / wherein fish is fermented via being wrapped in soured fermenting rice. The fish proteins break down via fermentation into its constituent amino acids. The fermenting rice and fish results in a sour taste and also one of the five basic tastes / called umami in Japanese.In Japan / narezushi evolved into oshizushi and ultimately Edomae nigirizushi / which is what the world today knows as "sushi". Contemporary Japanese sushi has little resemblance to the traditional lacto-fermented rice dish. Originally / when the fermented fish was taken out of the rice / only the fish was consumed and the fermented rice was discarded.The strong-tasting and smelling funazushi / a kind of narezushi made near Lake Biwa in Japan / resembles the traditional fermented dish. Beginning in the Muromachi period (AD 1336?1573) of Japan / vinegar was added to the mixture for better taste and preservation. The vinegar accentuated the rice's sourness and was known to increase its shelf life / allowing the fermentation process to be shortened and eventually abandoned. In the following centuries / sushi in Osaka evolved into oshi-zushi. The seafood and rice were pressed using wooden (usually bamboo) molds. By the mid 18th century / this form of sushi had reached Edo (contemporary Tokyo). The contemporary version / internationally known as "sushi" / was created by Hanaya Yohei (1799?1858) at the end of the Edo period in Edo. The sushi invented by Hanaya was an early form of fast food that was not fermented (therefore prepared quickly) and could be eaten with one's hands at a roadside or in a theatre.Originally / this sushi was known as Edomae zushi because it used freshly caught fish in the Edo-mae (Edo Bay or Tokyo Bay). Though the fish used in modern sushi no longer usually comes from Tokyo Bay / it is still formally known as Edomae nigirizushi.

Sushi Type

Nigirizushi

Nigirizushi

Nigirizushi consists of an oblong mound of sushi rice that the chef presses into a small rectangular box between the palms of the hands / usually with a bit of wasabi / and a topping (the neta) draped over it. Neta are typically fish such as salmon / tuna or other seafood. Certain toppings are typically bound to the rice with a thin strip of nori / most commonly octopus (tako) / freshwater eel (unagi) / sea eel (anago) / squid (ika) / and sweet egg (tamago). When ordered separately / nigiri is generally served in pairs. A sushi set (a sampler dish) may contain only one piece of each topping.


Makizushi

Makizushi-hosomaki

Nigirizushi consists of an oblong mound of sushi rice that the chef presses into a small rectangular box between the palms of the hands / usually with a bit of wasabi / and a topping (the neta) draped over it. Neta are typically fish such as salmon / tuna or other seafood. Certain toppings are typically bound to the rice with a thin strip of nori / most commonly octopus (tako) / freshwater eel (unagi) / sea eel (anago) / squid (ika) / and sweet egg (tamago). When ordered separately / nigiri is generally served in pairs. A sushi set (a sampler dish) may contain only one piece of each topping.


Inarizushi

Inarizushi.jpg

Inarizushi is a pouch of fried tofu filled with usually just sushi rice. It is named after the Shinto god Inari / who is believed to have a fondness for fried tofu. The pouch is normally fashioned as deep-fried tofu. Regional variations include pouches made of a thin omelette. It should not be confused with inari maki / which is a roll


Chirashizushi

Chirashizushi

Chirashizushi is a bowl of sushi rice topped with a variety of sashimi and garnishes (also refers to barazushi). Edomae chirashizushi (Edo-style scattered sushi) is an uncooked ingredient that is arranged artfully on top of the sushi rice in a bowl. Gomokuzushi (Kansai-style sushi) are cooked or uncooked ingredients mixed in the body of rice in a bowl. There is no set formula for the ingredients and they are either chef's choice or sometimes specified by the customer. It is commonly eaten because it is filling / fast and easy to make. Chirashizushi often varies regionally. It is eaten annually on Hinamatsuri in March.


Western-style sushi

The increasing popularity of sushi around the world has resulted in variations typically found in North America and Europe / but rarely in Japan. Such creations to suit the Western palate were initially fueled by the invention of the California roll. A wide variety of popular rolls has evolved since. Though the menu names of dishes often vary by restaurant / some examples include Alaska roll / B.C. roll / California roll / Dynamite roll / Hawaiian roll / Philadelphia roll / Rainbow roll / Seattle roll / Spider roll.

Sushi Neta

Aji ( Horse mackerel) / Iwashi(Sardine) / Kajiki(Swordfish) / Katsuwo(bonito) / Carei(righteye flounder) / Kanpachi(Greater amberjack) / kohada(medium-sized gizzard shad) / Sake・Shake(Salmon) / Saba(mackerel) / Sawara(Japanese Spanish mackerel) / Sanma(saury) / Suzuki(Japanese sea perch) / Tai(sea bream) / Hamachi(yellow tail) / buri(Japanese amberjack) / hiramasa(Yellowtail amberjack) / Hirame(Flounder) / maguro(tuna) / Toro(tuna) / mekajiki(Swordfish) /
ainame(greenling) / anago(Conger-eel) / unagi(Japanese eel) / amaebi(northern shrimp) / kurumaebi(penaeid shrimp) / botannebi(botan shrimp) / hokkaishimaebi(North Sea shrimp) / shako(mantis shrimp) / Kani(crab) / Zuwai gani(snow crab) / tarabagani(King crab) / Ika(cuttlefish / squid) / Tako(octopus) / awabi(abalone) / aoyagi(green willow) / Akagai(ark shell) / hotategai(Japanese scallop) / hokkigai(Sakhalin surf clam) / Mirugai(Tresus keenae) / tsubugai(whelk) / torigai(Japanese egg cockle) / Ikura(salmon roe) / uni(Sea urchin) / Tobiko(flying fish roe) / caviar / negitoro(tuna minced with Welsh onion leaves) / Dashi maki(Japanese omelette)

Vocabulary

agari(Tea) / oaiso(payment) / kappa(cucumber) / garage(squilla) / kidu(dried gourd) / gyoku(omelet) / kusa(laver) / murasaki(soy sauce) /

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